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GERMANY: History, Government, and Culture

27. June 2011 12:14 by Administrator in   //  Tags:   //   Comments (0)

Historical Overview:

 

Germanic and Celtic tribes, hailing originally from Russia, were living in the region now known as Germany by 1000 BC. These tribes were continually at war with the Romans. In AD 400, a group called the Franks defeated the Romans.

 

In AD 800, the Frankish ruler Charlemagne made a move to revive the Roman Empire. He consolidated vast lands including northern Italy and the majority of France under his rule. After his time, however, Germany was divided into many states that then elected an emperor.

 

Medieval Germany was ruled by a succession of hereditary dynasties. The first was the Saxons in 963, under the Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great.

 

From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, German history was dominated by conflicts between the popes and emperors regarding the Investiture Controversy, wherein the authority of monarchies to appoint church officials was challenged.

 

In 1517, Martin Luther, a German monk, instigated the Reformation movement. He called for changes and demanded reforms from the Roman Catholic Church. The religious strife he gave impetus to led to a division of Germany into Roman Catholic (southern) and Protestant (northern) states that didn’t end until 1648.

 

In the nineteenth century, Germany and other areas of Europe came under Napoleon Bonaparte’s rule after he defeated the Holy Roman Empire. After Napoleon himself was defeated, the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded a Germany Confederation composed of 35 autonomous states. In 1871, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, instigated the reunification of Germany under Prussian leadership.

 

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, German leaders fostered industrialization and tried to expand their influence in Europe and in other countries. This helped trigger World War I in 1914. The German Empire was defeated and subsequently replaced by the Weimar Republic in 1918. The harsh outcome of the war left the country in crisis, both economic and political.

 

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, he set out to correct the crisis by remilitarizing Germany along with the infamous campaign to create a master race. When German forces invaded Poland in 1939, a second world war was set in motion.

 

In 1945, Germany was again defeated in World War II. It was divided by the victors into zones of influence that became what we commonly refer to as East Germany (German Democratic Republic) and West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany). Berlin, the capital, was also divided in the process.

 

East Germany adopted communism and was closely linked with the Soviet Union. On the other hand, West Germany adopted a parliamentary democracy and built strong ties with Western Europe and the United States. Within a mere two decades of the defeat in World War II, West Germany had become one of the world’s richest countries with a prosperity that trickled down to the entire population. East Germany, on the other hand, had fallen far behind economically. Dissatisfaction with the communist system led millions of East Germans to flee to West Germany from 1946 to 1961. Because of this, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to block the major escape path.

 

In the eighties a chain of events including massive political protests and emigration to West Germany set the stage for German reunification. In November 1989, the government of East Germany abolished travel restrictions. In addition, non-Communist political parties were allowed to organize. In March 1990, parliamentary elections were held in East Germany that paved the way for non-Communists to gain control of the government.

 

With the end of Communist rule in East Germany, both sides started to consider reunification. In July 1990, the economies of the two nations were merged into a single system. A month after, East Germany and West Germany signed a treaty finalizing unification. This treaty took effect on October 3, 1990. Berlin was named the capital of Germany once again.

 

 Germany’s Government:

 

Unified Germany is a federal parliamentary republic governed by the constitution of 1949.

 

The federal president is considered the head of state but has little influence on the government. He or she is elected for a term of five years by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention) that meets for this sole purpose. This convention is made up of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and the same number of delegates from the state parliaments.

 

The chancellor is considered the head of the government. He or she is elected for a four-year term by a majority of the Bundestag.

 

There is a Parliament that is composed of two houses. The Bundesrat (Federal Council or upper house) has 69 seats. Each state is represented by three to six members, depending on its population. The Bundestag (lower house) is made up of 614 deputies with a term of four years elected via a mixed system of direct voting and proportional representation.

 

Germany has 16 states, each of which has its own legislature, constitution, and government. The government of each state is allowed to enact laws on all matters except finance, foreign affairs, and defense. These three areas are the sole province of the federal government.

 

 German Culture:

 

Greetings: Even though German culture is evolving due to the more relaxed recent generations, greetings are still fairly formal. The traditional greeting is a quick and firm handshake. Upon entering a room, Germans usually shake hands with everyone, including children. If there are unfamiliar faces in the group, they usually wait for the host to introduce them to everybody. When it comes to introductions, Germans place a huge importance on titles. The title and the last name are initially used unless the person is invited to use the first name.

 

Communication: When it comes to business dealings, Germans don’t require a personal relationship. What they will be interested in are the number of years that your company has been in operation and your academic credentials. Also, they show great respect for people in authority, so it is important that they know your level vis-à-vis their own.

 

German communication is relatively formal. It is crucial that you adhere to the accepted protocol to build and maintain business relationships. In meetings, do not be too expressive as Germans are suspicious of exaggerated talk and promises that seem too good to be true. It is better to go straight to the point as they are accustomed to doing. Giving compliments is also not included in German business protocol and may cause awkwardness and embarrassment. In business transactions, expect a lot of written communication that will serve as a record of discussions and decisions that were made.

 

Saying No: Germans usually don’t have a problem with turning down an invitation or a request. They will most likely say no, not because they’re insensitive or because they mean to be discourteous, but because it’s simply a statement of fact. You may or may not feel uncomfortable, but be ready to apologize for errors and provide explanations or solutions.

 

On the other hand, Germans are very sensitive to criticism. They have an individualistic culture, so they are more concerned with their public “face.” As such, avoid doing anything that will embarrass them in public.

 

Eye Contact: Maintain direct eye contact during conversations and especially during introductions while you’re being addressed by the person. Even in public, eye contact can be direct and not smiling all the time. However, don’t assume that stares are meant to be threatening. Do not expect that direct eye contact will necessitate a greeting from Germans. They also won’t expect anything from you.

 

Gift Giving: If you are invited to come to a German’s house, bringing a gift such as flowers or chocolates is deemed respectful. Tea or yellow roses are always welcome. On the other hand, red roses are seen as an expression of romantic intentions. Do not offer carnations since these represent mourning. Also, do not offer lilies and chrysanthemums because they’re used in funerals. Should you decide to bring wine, bring one that is imported such as French or Italian. Bringing German wines is seen as indicating that you believe that your host won’t serve a good-quality wine. Once received, gifts are usually opened right away.

 

When meeting with a person for the first time, opt for a small gift. Large gifts are unusual and should definitely not be given before a deal has been made so that your intentions won’t be misconstrued. Substantial gifts shouldn’t be given in private. The general rule is that the bigger the gift, the more public and official the giving should be.

 

Dining: If you’ve been invited for dinner, do not arrive too early. Arrive on time instead as punctuality is an indication of good planning. Also, never arrive more than 15 minutes after the set time without contacting the host beforehand to explain why. If attending a business dinner, remember not to use first names when talking to people. Business is still business even when eating. Send the host a handwritten thank-you note the following day to express your gratitude.

 

Sources

 

http://www2.csusm.edu/mgannon/.../CULTURAL%20METAPHORS.dochttp://asag-biotech.net/Data/Countries/Germany/.../Germany_Cultural_Tips.pdf

http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/german/lj/cultural_notes/greetings.shtml 

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html

http://www.mapsofworld.com/germany/population.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/231186/Germany

http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Germany:_Gift_Giving

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Germany-history.htm

http://www.plu.edu/~emmersle/doc/expatriates-guide.doc

http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/DE-history.htm

http://gotraveltogermany.com/germany-history.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageing_of_Europe#Germany

http://www.indexmundi.com/germany/life_expectancy_at_birth.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/european_languages/countries/germany.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Germany

http://www.mapsofworld.com/germany/germany-country-and-germany-states/germany-government/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1047864.stm

 

 

 

 

 

GERMANY: History, Government, and Culture

27. June 2011 10:33 by Administrator in   //  Tags:   //   Comments (0)

Historical Overview:

 

Germanic and Celtic tribes, hailing originally from Russia, were living in the region now known as Germany by 1000 BC. These tribes were continually at war with the Romans. In AD 400, a group called the Franks defeated the Romans.

 

In AD 800, the Frankish ruler Charlemagne made a move to revive the Roman Empire. He consolidated vast lands including northern Italy and the majority of France under his rule. After his time, however, Germany was divided into many states that then elected an emperor.

 

Medieval Germany was ruled by a succession of hereditary dynasties. The first was the Saxons in 963, under the Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great.

 

From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, German history was dominated by conflicts between the popes and emperors regarding the Investiture Controversy, wherein the authority of monarchies to appoint church officials was challenged.

 

In 1517, Martin Luther, a German monk, instigated the Reformation movement. He called for changes and demanded reforms from the Roman Catholic Church. The religious strife he gave impetus to led to a division of Germany into Roman Catholic (southern) and Protestant (northern) states that didn’t end until 1648.

 

In the nineteenth century, Germany and other areas of Europe came under Napoleon Bonaparte’s rule after he defeated the Holy Roman Empire. After Napoleon himself was defeat, the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded a Germany Confederation composed of 35 autonomous states. In 1871, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, instigated the reunification of Germany under Prussian leadership.

 

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, German leaders fostered industrialization and tried to expand their influence in Europe and in other countries. This helped trigger World War I in 1914. The German Empire was defeated and subsequently replaced by the Weimar Republic in 1918. The harsh outcome of the war left the country in crisis, both economic and political.

 

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, he set out to correct the crisis by remilitarizing Germany along with the infamous campaign to create a master race. When German forces invaded Poland in 1939, a second world war was set in motion.

 

In 1945, Germany was again defeated in World War II. It was divided by the victors into zones of influence that became what we commonly refer to as East Germany (German Democratic Republic) and West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany). Berlin, the capital, was also divided in the process.

 

East Germany adopted communism and was closely linked with the Soviet Union. On the other hand, West Germany adopted a parliamentary democracy and built strong ties with Western Europe and the United States. Within a mere two decades of the defeat in World War II, West Germany had become one of the world’s richest countries with a prosperity that trickled down to the entire population. East Germany, on the other hand, had fallen far behind economically. Dissatisfaction with the communist system led millions of East Germans to flee to West Germany from 1946 to 1961. Because of this, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to block the major escape path.

 

In the eighties a chain of events including massive political protests and emigration to West Germany set the stage for German reunification. In November 1989, the government of East Germany abolished travel restrictions. In addition, non-Communist political parties were allowed to organize. In March 1990, parliamentary elections were held in East Germany that paved the way for non-Communists to gain control of the government.

 

With the end of Communist rule in East Germany, both sides started to consider reunification. In July 1990, the economies of the two nations were merged into a single system. A month after, East Germany and West Germany signed a treaty finalizing unification. This treaty took effect on October 3, 1990. Berlin was named the capital of Germany once again.

 

Germany’s Government:

 

Unified Germany is a federal parliamentary republic governed by the constitution of 1949.

 

The federal president is considered the head of state but has little influence on the government. He or she is elected for a term of five years by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention) that meets for this sole purpose. This convention is made up of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and the same number of delegates from the state parliaments.

 

The chancellor is considered the head of the government. He or she is elected for a four-year term by a majority of the Bundestag.

 

There is a Parliament that is composed of two houses. The Bundesrat (Federal Council or upper house) has 69 seats. Each state is represented by three to six members, depending on its population. The Bundestag (lower house) is made up of 614 deputies with a term of four years elected via a mixed system of direct voting and proportional representation.

 

Germany has 16 states, each of which has its own legislature, constitution, and government. The government of each state is allowed to enact laws on all matters except finance, foreign affairs, and defense. These three areas are the sole province of the federal government.

 

 

German Culture:

 

Greetings: Even though German culture is evolving due to the more relaxed recent generations, greetings are still fairly formal. The traditional greeting is a quick and firm handshake. Upon entering a room, Germans usually shake hands with everyone, including children. If there are unfamiliar faces in the group, they usually wait for the host to introduce them to everybody. When it comes to introductions, Germans place a huge importance on titles. The title and the last name are initially used unless the person is invited to use the first name.

 

Communication: When it comes to business dealings, Germans don’t require a personal relationship. What they will be interested in are the number of years that your company has been in operation and your academic credentials. Also, they show great respect for people in authority, so it is important that they know your level vis-à-vis their own.

 

German communication is relatively formal. It is crucial that you adhere to the accepted protocol to build and maintain business relationships. In meetings, do not be too expressive as Germans are suspicious of exaggerated talk and promises that seem too good to be true. It is better to go straight to the point as they are accustomed to doing. Giving compliments is also not included in German business protocol and may cause awkwardness and embarrassment. In business transactions, expect a lot of written communication that will serve as a record of discussions and decisions that were made.

 

Saying No: Germans usually don’t have a problem with turning down an invitation or a request. They will most likely say no, not because they’re insensitive or because they mean to be discourteous, but because it’s simply a statement of fact. You may or may not feel uncomfortable, but be ready to apologize for errors and provide explanations or solutions.

 

On the other hand, Germans are very sensitive to criticism. They have an individualistic culture, so they are more concerned with their public “face.” As such, avoid doing anything that will embarrass them in public.

 

Eye Contact: Maintain direct eye contact during conversations and especially during introductions while you’re being addressed by the person. Even in public, eye contact can be direct and not smiling all the time. However, don’t assume that stares are meant to be threatening. Do not expect that direct eye contact will necessitate a greeting from Germans. They also won’t expect anything from you.

 

Gift Giving: If you are invited to come to a German’s house, bringing a gift such as flowers or chocolates is deemed respectful. Tea or yellow roses are always welcome. On the other hand, red roses are seen as an expression of romantic intentions. Do not offer carnations since these represent mourning. Also, do not offer lilies and chrysanthemums because they’re used in funerals. Should you decide to bring wine, bring one that is imported such as French or Italian. Bringing German wines is seen as indicating that you believe that your host won’t serve a good-quality wine. Once received, gifts are usually opened right away.

 

When meeting with a person for the first time, opt for a small gift. Large gifts are unusual and should definitely not be given before a deal has been made so that your intentions won’t be misconstrued. Substantial gifts shouldn’t be given in private. The general rule is that the bigger the gift, the more public and official the giving should be.

 

Dining: If you’ve been invited for dinner, do not arrive too early. Arrive on time instead as punctuality is an indication of good planning. Also, never arrive more than 15 minutes after the set time without contacting the host beforehand to explain why. If attending a business dinner, remember not to use first names when talking to people. Business is still business even when eating. Send the host a handwritten thank-you note the following day to express your gratitude.

 

 

Sources

 

http://www2.csusm.edu/mgannon/.../CULTURAL%20METAPHORS.doc

http://asag-biotech.net/Data/Countries/Germany/.../Germany_Cultural_Tips.pdf

http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/german/lj/cultural_notes/greetings.shtml

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html

http://www.mapsofworld.com/germany/population.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/231186/Germany

http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Germany:_Gift_Giving

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Germany-history.htm

http://www.plu.edu/~emmersle/doc/expatriates-guide.doc

http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/DE-history.htm

http://gotraveltogermany.com/germany-history.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageing_of_Europe#Germany

http://www.indexmundi.com/germany/life_expectancy_at_birth.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/european_languages/countries/germany.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Germany

http://www.mapsofworld.com/germany/germany-country-and-germany-states/germany-government/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1047864.stm

Consumer Products - Electronics

26. October 2010 10:20 by Administrator in   //  Tags:   //   Comments (0)

Language services for the electronics industry, particularly consumer electronics translation, are an important component of McElroy’s business. We are happy to see an uptick in electronics translation demand as sales increase in 2010 for many segments of the electronics industry and trade between the U.S. and foreign markets remains active. Translations are provided for manufacturers of computers and accessories, televisions, sound systems, telecommunications, and camera and video equipment.

U.S. export reforms may particularly help many U.S. electronics manufacturers. An August 2010 article1 on IPC’s website offers a brief overview of relevant electronics industries export changes. With the new system, electronics with direct warfare applications will be more tightly controlled, BUT controls on electronic products in the bottom tier will be loosened or eliminated. This is a great opportunity for many U.S. electronic products firms to begin or increase sales in non-domestic markets.

How important is electronics trade within the U.S. economy? A sampling of notable statistics says it all2:

  • 2 of the top 10 exports from the United States and 4 of the top 10 imports into the United States are electronics products.
  • Computer and electronic goods are the top exports to Mexico and second-largest imports from Mexico.
  • Although a small segment in dollars, audio and visual recording media were the second fastest growing segment of U.S. export trade in 2009.
  • Exports and imports of camera and video equipment have both increased over 20% through July 2010 compared to the first seven months of 2009.

Examples of the types of language services McElroy provides for clients in the electronic products industry:

 

Computer Parts and Accessories

This is a significant trade market for U.S. firms. After a decrease for most of 2009, fourth quarter 2009 figures showed a marked increase in computers and related hardware exports. Items requiring computer or components translation include licensing or distribution agreements, legal protection of trademarks and new technologies, and communications and guidelines for manufacturing. Additionally, marketing and product information require a specialized combination of localization language skills.

 

Home Entertainment Equipment

U.S. trade in 2010 for televisions and other home entertainment electronics, particularly photographic equipment, is up. Mexico is the source of 99.5% of all plasma TVs imported into the United States, and over half of all TVs exported from the United States are bound for China. User manuals, product information, and packaging and labeling have historically generated significant demand for localization. McElroy maintains current technology expertise in this field, having served several consumer electronics clients for well over a decade.

 

Telecommunications Equipment

In both the top 10 list of U.S. product imports ($37 billion) and exports ($29 billion) for 2009,3 this industry has many language services needs. McElroy serves both the B2B and B2C markets in telecom translation services. Infrastructure information, system requirements, user manuals, installation and service guides, print and online product information, marketing materials and legal and business documents are examples of the broad range of telecommunications translation McElroy provides.


References

  1. Ron Chamrin, IPC manager of government relations: http://blog.ipc.org/2010/08/31/electronics-companies-most-likely-to-benefit-by-changes-in-u-s-export-controls/.
  2. Office of Technology and Electronic Commerce, U.S. Computer Equipment Trade Summary: 2009.
  3. Joint report, U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services, issued by U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, June 10, 2010.

Translations for the GROWING Energy Industry

26. October 2010 10:13 by Administrator in   //  Tags:   //   Comments (0)

In 2009, China overtook the United States to become the largest energy consumer nation in the world. And the demand for energy is expected to rebound soon in those countries and regions where it has shrunk in the past two years. As costs and environmental concerns about traditional energy sources grow, mature energy industries are seeking new technologies to increase efficiencies and produce cleaner energy products.

All segments of the energy industrypetroleum, gas, coal, electric, alternative, and nuclearare forecasted to grow over the next 25 years, with the International Energy Outlook report projecting a 49% increase in world-marketed energy consumption from 2007 to 2035.1

The global recession and various national policies have affected petroleum companies in significantly different ways. However, according to the PFC Energy 50 report,2 some oil industry companies’ valuations were at their highest in history by the beginning of 2010.

Although this report shows that the fifteen largest alternative energy companies have recovered only half of their lost 2008 valuation as a group, Global Clean’s recent report3 indicates that capital invested in this sector by the end of September 2010 already exceeded the whole of 2009. In alternative or renewable energy, research and development and intellectual property protection currently produce the most requests for translation from McElroy, but we expect to see the need for more installation, operations, safety, contracts and communications, and sales and marketing texts as this market matures.

High-tech is becoming more integrated with electrical energy as is evidenced by the companies present in this Alt Energy Smart Grid stock list, which includes IBM, Cisco Systems, and even Google!4 For more information about what the Smart Grid is, there are PDFs directed to consumers, technology providers, and others on this web page.5 The U.S. government seems to be signaling a commitment to the global Smart Grid project with Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke’s delivery of the keynote address at the 2010 GridWeek Conference.6

From McElroy’s inception, energy and chemical translations have been core segments of our business. Energy clients range in size and type from the largest U.S.-based integrated oil corporations to smaller, highly specialized global energy firms. Our translations support businesses operating in oilfield services, equipment manufacturing, transportation, hardware and software technologies, and many energy services companies.

A sampling of McElroy’s energy equipment clients by primary product category includes:

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear power plant equipment
  • Regulators, valves, discs, and other fluid controls
  • Transformers, generators, UPS systems
  • Seismic data systems
  • Subsea production equipment

A sampling of McElroy’s energy services clients by primary service category includes:

  • Electrical energy auditing and engineering
  • Onshore and offshore drilling
  • Petroleum products transportation
  • Equipment rental
  • Inventory software and services

 

References

1         U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Report, July 2010: http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484(2010).pdf.

2         PFC Energy 50 report available in PDF: http://www.pfcenergy.com/pfc50.aspx.

3         Cleantech’s Global Clean Technology Venture Investment release online: http://cleantech.com/about/pressreleases/3Q10-investments.cfm.

4         Alt Energy’s Smart Grid Stock List: http://www.altenergystocks.com/comm/content/smart-grid-stocks/.

5         Smart Grid PDFs for consumers, utilities, technology providers, regulators, and others: http://www.oe.energy.gov/SmartGridIntroduction.htm.

6         U.S. Department of Commerce online article, Secretary Locke Keynotes Annual GridWeek Conference: http://www.commerce.gov/.

Importing, Exporting, and Translation

19. August 2010 10:25 by Administrator in   //  Tags:   //   Comments (0)

McElroy Translation’s very first project in 1968 was the translation of documents to support a budding international business relationship. Of the more than one billion words we’ve translated since then, 99 percent has been in support of global business.

So, we take a keen interest in everything that impacts the import/export of goods and services in the United States. In an effort to boost exports, and thus increase jobs, through streamlining export processes, President Obama announced the Export Control Reform Initiative in March 2010. This fact sheet1 from the White House outlines the initiative and its purpose.

The March 11, 2010 White House blog2 confirms the president’s policies on exports by focusing on his State of the Union address, in which “the President explained that every $1 billion increase in exports would support more than 6,000 jobs.”

In Donald A. DePalma’s article, Obama Expands Executive Council to Increase U.S. Exports3, he frames the National Export Initiative4 (NEI) in the context of why it is important, what it could mean to U.S. businesses, and topics that should be discussed by the Export Council.

We agree with DePalma’s contention that language issues are central to successful export development, and that the lack of language services representation will adversely impact the results. “The bottom line is that language services and exports are inextricably linked in a chicken-and-egg kind of relationship. Export is enabled by language, and more exports increase demand for more language across the spectrum of marketing, product, and support. . . .”

McElroy Translation has a history of helping clients, large and small, with the language services needed for importing and exporting. We understand the importance of protecting brands when expanding internationally and integrating into global communities through a thoughtful understanding of linguistic and cultural nuances. We bring that understanding to the translation of materials for R&D, business negotiations, licensing, patents and trademarks, operations, manufacturing, safety, human resources, consumer information, marketing, and much more. A long and reputable history within the translation community enables McElroy to access the finest technical linguistic expertise available on a regular basis in all major languages in support of our clients’ international business needs.

1 Whitehouse.gov website, April 20, 2010, Office of the Press Secretary.

2  Competing on the Global Playing Field in the 21st Century, Whitehouse.gov blog.

3 Global Watchtower, Globalization in Practice, July 8, 2010, Donald A. DePalma.

4 Export.gov website, U.S. Exports, What's New with the National Export Initiative (NEI)

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